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Glass is an Agricultural Program Associate and Mask is an Associate Professor in the Auburn University Department of Agronomy and Soils.
Table 1. Location, Planting, and Harvest Dates for 1998-99 Small Grain Tests
Table 2. North Alabama Regional Averages of Small Grain Variety Performance
Table 3. Tennessee Valley Research and Extension Center Small Grain Trial, Belle Mina
Table 4. Sand Mountain Research and Extension Center Small Grain Trial, Crossville
Table 5. Upper Coastal Plain Research Station Small Grain Trial, Winfield
Table 6. Central Alabama Regional Averages of Small Grain Variety Performance
Table 7. Black Belt Research and Extension Center Small Grain Trial, Marion Junction
Table 8. Prattville Experiment Field Small Grain Trial, Prattville
Table 9. E.V. Smith Res. Ctr. Small Grain Trial, Plant Breeding Unit, Tallassee
Table 10. South Alabama Regional Averages of Small Grain Variety Performance
Table 11. Monroeville Experiment Field Small Grain Trial, Monroeville
Table 12. Gulf Coast Research and Extension Center Small Grain Trial, Fairhope
Table 13. Lower Coastal Plain Research Station Small Grain Trial, Camden
Table 14. Wiregrass Research and Extension Center Small Grain Trial, Headland
Table 15. Disease Ratings: Septoria Blotch, Wheat
Table 16. Disease Ratings: Leaf Rust, Wheat
Table 17. Disease Ratings: Powdery Mildew, Wheat
Table 18. Disease Ratings: Barley Yellow Dwarf, Wheat
Table 19. Disease Ratings: Oat
Table 20. Disease Ratings: Triticale
Table 21. Disease Ratings: Barley
Sources of Seed
The large number of commercially available varieties of wheat, oat, rye, barley, and triticale makes it difficult for growers to select varieties most suited for their particular area of Alabama. Making this decision requires up-to-date, unbiased, reliable information on varietal yields and characteristics. This report is published annually to provide Alabama growers with this information.
Entries in each experiment are determined by the companies or institutes which control each variety, or line, not by experiment station personnel. Data from tests conducted at 10 locations were used to compile this report. These locations represent the varied growing conditions farmers have around Alabama.
The experimental design for the tests was a split plot design with species as the main plot and varieties as subplots. Plots were 5 feet by 20 feet with rows spaced 7 inches apart. A cone drill was used to plant all tests. Each variety was replicated three times in each test.
The trials were divided into two management systems: grain only and forage only.
Grain only: These tests are normally planted during late October to early November, which is approximately one month later than the forage tests. Planting dates for all tests in 1998 are shown in table 1. All tests were fertilized with P and K according to soil test plus 20 pounds N per acre at planting with a top dressing of 60 pounds N per acre in late February or early March, just before jointing. The plots were not sprayed to control disease so that the varieties could be rated for their inherent disease resistance. The grain was allowed to mature and was harvested with a plot combine. The grain was cleaned and weighed. Moisture and bushel test weight were measured.
Forage only: These tests are normally planted in late September to early October. Tests were fertilized at planting with 100 pounds N per acre and clipped with a flail-type mower each time they reached 6 inches in height. A sample was weighed green from each plot, then dried and reweighed. The percent dry matter figure from these weights was used to calculate dry forage matter per acre. The test was top dressed in February with 60 pounds N per acre and clipping was continued until no regrowth occurred.
Grain yields were calculated by weighing air-dried grain and using 60 pounds per bushel for wheat, 32 pounds per bushel for oat, 48 pounds per bushel for barley, and 50 pounds per bushel for triticale.
Lodging was measured as the percent of plants in the stand broken or leaning that would likely be missed by a combine. Height was measured from the ground to top of the grain head.
The 1/10 headed date is the date when approximately 10 percent of a plot showed fully emerged heads.
Disease ratings for all 1998-99 variety trials are summarized by region in tables 15 through 21. Katherine B. Burch, Research Associate, Department of Plant Pathology, made disease ratings at all locations. Disease onset on wheat was earlier than in previous years. At the time of mid-season ratings, severity of leaf rust and Septoria leaf blotch was slightly lower than in 1998 while incidence of powdery mildew and the viral disease barley yellow dwarf was higher throughout the state. On oats levels of Helminthosporium leaf spot were generally lower; however, incidence and severity of crown rust and barley yellow dwarf were higher. Stem rust on oats was only present on a few varieties at the Upper Coastal Plain Research Station (Winfield). On triticale, low levels of leaf rust and Septoria blotch were observed at most locations while incidence of barley yellow dwarf was somewhat higher compared to 1998. On barley, spot blotch, net blotch, and Septoria blotch developed at low to moderate levels at all locations. Barley yellow dwarf was observed at moderate to high levels in all barley entries at the Sand Mountain Research and Extension Center (Crossville) and at the Tennessee Valley Research and Extension Center (Belle Mina). However, no barley yellow dwarf was observed at the Upper Coastal Plain Research Station (Winfield).
Growing conditions and variety performance often vary among locations and years. Regional averages and multiple-year averages are given here to use as a better indicator for performance comparison. In the 1996-97 growing season, all locations had wet conditions, causing delayed harvest at some locations and possibly reducing yields in some varieties. Both lodging and bird damage was moderate to severe in oats at most central and southern locations. The 1997-98 growing season was a mild, wet fall and winter with a dry spring. Neither the forage- nor grain-only trials were planted at the Black Belt Research and Extension Center, Marion Junction, due to dry then wet conditions during planting season. There was herbicide injury on the grain-only trial at Upper Coastal Plain Research Station, Winfield. It was determined that the trial data were invalid and therefore not reported. Neither Marion Junction nor Winfield were included in the two- and three-year averages for their regions. In the 1998-99 growing season, planting was delayed at several locations due to dry weather.
Appreciation is expressed to Mien-Huei Tzeng, Research Data Analysis, for the computation and summarization of data in this report.
Appreciation is also expressed to the following cooperators whose support is gratefully acknowledged:
|Tennessee Valley Research and Extension Center, Belle Mina|| B.E. Norris, Jr., Supt.
H.E. Burgess, Assoc. Supt.
|Sand Mountain Research and Extension Center, Crossville||R.A. Dawkins, Supt.|
|Upper Coastal Plain Research Station, Winfield||R.C. Rawls, Supt.|
|Black Belt Research and Extension Center, Marion Junction||J.L. Holliman, Supt.|
|Prattville Experiment Field||D.P. Moore, Supt.|
| E.V. Smith Research Center
Plant Breeding Unit, Tallassee
| J. S. Bannon, Dir.
S.P. Nightengale, Supt.
|Monroeville Experiment Field||J.R. Akridge, Supt.|
|Gulf Coast Research and Extension Center, Fairhope|| N.R. McDaniel, Supt.
M.D. Pegues, Asst. Supt.
|Lower Coastal Plain Research Station, Camden|| J.A. Little, Supt.
P.A. Rose, Asst. Supt.
|Wiregrass Research and Extension Center, Headland|| L.W. Wells, Supt.
B.E. Gamble, Asst. Supt.
Information contained herein is available to all persons regardless of race, color, sex, or national origin.