|Research Centers||Administration||Research Areas||News and Publications||Partners|
Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station
R. Dennis Rouse,
Balsbaugh is a former Graduate Assistant, Department of Zoology-Entomolgy, now Associate Professor, Entomolgy-Zoology, South Dakota State University; and Hays is a Professor, Department of Zoology-Entomology.
In the early days of American entomology the collecting of insect specimens and recording of natural history data from the Deep South were sporadic and sparse. Areas particularly lacking in this type of study were western Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi.
Working together, E. A. Schwarz and H. G. Hubbard collected beetles in the South. In the latter part of the 19th century they made many collecting trips to Florida in the interest of obtaining specimens for the Detroit Scientific Association, which they had founded (50). Mr. Schwarz also collected Chrysomelidae at Selma, Alabama (63), one of the first collections of this family from the State. Other collectors in the South at about the turn of the century, who collected beetles along with other insects, included F. Knab, H. S. Barber, and J. C. Bridwell.
More recently the results of surveys of Chrysomelidae of several Southern States have been published: Florida (31), Georgia (57), South Carolina (67, 68), and Mississippi (49). These are primarily checklists and are not descriptive or analytic. Such a checklist-without keys or descriptions-was compiled for Alabama by Loding (75). Loding, an amateur naturalist, resided in Mobile and contributed more to the study of Alabama Coleoptera than anyone else. His catalogue listed 88 families, 1,041 genera, and 2,770 species and varieties, including 259 forms of 83 genera of Chrysomelidae. His collection is presently maintained at the University of Alabama, University, Alabama.
Although Loding's contribution to coleopterology was remarkable, it nevertheless does not discourage further investigations of this kind for the State. Additional distribution records are direly needed for zoogeographic studies and economic entomology. A thorough knowledge of the native fauna is valuable in recognizing introduced species, which are the potentially more dangerous economic pests.
Because the present work includes keys and descriptions, it is decidedly more useful than Loding's checklist. It also serves to identify a large percentage of the Chrysomelidae of the South eastern United States. Based on records by Kirk (67), 80.6 percent of the South Carolina species of Chrysomelidae are common to Alabama and South Carolina. Based on Fattig's (57) list for Georgia, 93.3 per cent of that state's species are common to Alabama and Georgia.
Other than the publication on work by Park (82) on the pselaphid beetles of Alabama, this bulletin is the only taxonomic paper for an entire Alabama beetle family.
Collecting of specimens by the senior author was begun in the spring of 1963 and continued through summer 1965. During this period trips were made to various locales throughout the State and samples taken from sites such as roadsides, state and national parks, county lakes, and national forests. Since the collecting localities covered all parts of the State and were often visited more than once, a fair representation of chrysomelid beetles from Alabama's various faunal zones is believed to have been obtained.
The most frequently employed collecting techniques were beating and sweeping various types of vegetation. This was also done at night to obtain the nocturnal forms. Collections at lights and from light traps were also made, even though only a small percentage of chrysomelids are positively phototropic. Finally, larvae and adults of particular species were sought by scanning the vegetation of known preferred host plants. (The presence of beetles is frequently indicated by feeding damage to the plants.) The immatures of a few species were reared to adults in the laboratory, but larvae collected are not treated in this paper. Adults were usually killed in a cyanide bottle and then mounted on insect pins or points in the laboratory. Larvae were preserved in Hood's solution.
A few specimens of Alabama Chrysomelidae were in the Auburn University Entomology Museum when the authors began their survey. These were identified and utilized for distributional and seasonal data, and as models for descriptions.
Primary among other museum sources was the University of Alabama (UANH), which maintains the extensive Henry P. Loding collection of Coleoptera. Less numerous Alabama records were obtained from the F. R. Mason collection at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (ANSP), the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture Insect Collection (PADA), and the Division of Insects, United States National Museum (USNM). The latter undoubtedly contains more examples than are recorded here. Records were also obtained from the literature.
Identification of Alabama chrysomelids was accomplished by three methods. First, assembled specimens were compared with previously determined material. The sources of these identified specimens included the personal collection of the senior author and those of Henry P. Loding, the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, and the United States National Museum. The accuracy of previous identifications could be evaluated by the reputation of the respective taxonomists. Authorities on several genera were called on to make identifications and verifications, as noted in the acknowledgments. Finally, the taxonomic literature was utilized to obtain both original descriptions and subsequent revisions. References to these sources are frequently indicated in remarks under the various taxa. In making identifications, dissection of some specimens was necessary to examine the genitalic characters.
Because the purpose of the present study was faunistic and not revisionary, original taxonomic changes have been kept to a minimum. Only in a few instances have new synonymies or new specific validations been made. No name changes have been made in many groups where a more thorough taxonomic review is needed. These situations have been frequently indicated.
Some of the keys used are original and some are modifications of old ones. The adaptations were done chiefly to compensate for regional variations. In one case (properly credited) keys are quoted verbatim.
Incomplete generic and specific synonymies are presented in chronological sequence, including only original references to each name. Nomenclatorical changes are designated in bold-faced type. Complete citations of the majority of bibliographic sources, greatly abbreviated by the author, can be found in Blackwelder (14).
Descriptions usually are brief. The more nondescript species have required longer diagnoses. Following the descriptions are the county distributions of each species. Superscripts have been employed to indicate the source of these records: 1 indicated specimens from the Auburn University Entomology Museum; 2 the Loding collection; 3 either Loding's catalogue (without further notation) or museum sources (credited by the respective abbreviations listed in the section "Additional Sources", p. 7).
Only species known to have been collected in the State are included. An asterisk (*) behind the species name indicates a new State record. The sequence of presentation of species within a genus follows that of its most recent revisor.
The figure given with the county distributions is the total number of specimens seen from the State.
A few discrepancies have been noted between Loding's collection and his catalogue. Either records have been erroneously included in his catalogue or the specimens are now missing from his collection.
Treatment of Loding's collection by the authors has been as follows. No specimens have been kept. Miscellaneous unidentified specimens have been determined and incorporated into the collection proper. (It was from some of this material that an undescribed species of Disonycha was discovered.) All original determination labels have been retained on the pins. The series of specimens of a species follows Loding's arrangement as closely as possible. To do this was at times quite difficult because of the great disarray and crowding of his specimens. Some of the same species were found in different sections of his collection. The reordering of these beetles required the addition of 2 more Schmitt boxes, making a total of 12 for his Chrysomelidae. Some of the determination labels were folded and replaced on their respective pins when it was learned that the specimens were incorrectly identified or the names had changed. However, the authors are not responsible for the removal of determination labels from species of Disonycha, Capraita, or Kuschelina. Although these labels are still intact they were discovered to be no longer associated with specimens but simply placed as a group on three otherwise empty pins. As with the Auburn collection, Arnett (1) has been followed in arrangement of genera in the Loding collection. The arrangement of species usually follows that of the most recent generic revisor.
The family Chrysomelidae, along with the Cerambycidae and Bruchidae, has been placed by Crowson (46) in the Suborder Polyphaga, Series Cucujiformia, Superfamily Chrysomeloidea. The families of this superfamily share many characters, but members of the Chrysomelidae may be distinguished by their bilobed third tarsal segments (except in the subfamily Chrysomelinae where they are entire or nearly so); their relatively short antennae (usually less than two-thirds as long as the body), which are inserted on the front of the head; their entire or emarginate eyes (but when emarginate not surrounding the antennae); their general shape (convex oval or flattened); and their ecological habits (root or leaf-feeding).
Key to the Alabama Subfamilies of Chrysomelidae
From the results of a survey of literature, a review of museum materials and field collections throughout Alabama made between spring 1963 and summer 1965, a list of the known Chrysomelidae of Alabama has been compiled. Descriptions of and keys to these species and their supraspecific taxa are presented. Notes on the biology, ecology, seasonal and geographical distributions are included, as well as occasional remarks on taxonomy.
The following original taxonomic changes are made:
Assistance toward the completion of this investigation came from several sources. Persons who have aided by either making or verifying identifications, loaning or otherwise facilitating examinations of specimens in their care, loaning of manuscripts or making gifts of reprints, and being of other general assistance include: Doris H. Blake, Arlington, Virginia; W. J. Brown, Canada Department of Agriculture; Oscar L. Cartwright, United States National Museum; Ralph Chermock, while at University of Alabama; Vernon M. Kirk, Brookings, South Dakota; Edward J. F. Marx, Merchantville, New Jersey; Milton W. Sanderson, Illinois Natural History Survey; George B. Sleesman, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture; Ray F. Smith, University of California, Berkeley; George B. Vogt, United States Department of Agriculture; and John A. Wilcox, New York State Museum and Science Service. We are indeed grateful for their help. Study specimens have also been received both as personal gifts and donations to the Auburn University Entomology Museum. Most of these have been collections by graduate students. To these numerous friends go our sincere thanks for their special collecting efforts. We particularly desire to recognize the National Defense Education Act grant which supported the study. We are indebted to Miss Mary Lou Marsh for portions of the art work.
(1) Arnett, Ross H. Jr. The Beetles of the United States (A Manual for Identification). Part VI Suborder Polyphaga (Concl.) Series Cucujiformia (Concl.) Chrysomeloidea Curculionoidea, pp. 851-1112. Washington, D. C.: The Catholic Univ. of Amer. Press.
(2) Balsbaugh, Edward U. Jr. 1966. The Genus Lexiphanes of America North of Mexico (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 117 (3521): 655-680.
(3) -------. 1967. Possible Mimicry between Certain Carabidae and Chrysomelidae. The Coleopterists' Bull. 21 (4): 139-140.
(4) -------. 1968. Distributional and Ecological Notes on Distigmoptera and Pseudolampsis with a Description of a New Species of Distigmoptera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Jour. of the Kans. Entomol. Soc. 41 (2): 243-247.
(5) -------. 1969. Pseudolampsis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Alticinae): Distribution and Synonymy. The Coleopterists' Bull. 23 (1): 16-18.
(6) -------. 1970. Review of the Genus Paria LeConte (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae) of North America. Ann. EntomoI. Soc. Amer. 63: 453-460.
(7) Baly, Joseph Sugar. 1877. Descriptions of New Genera and of Uncharacterized Species of Halticinae. Trans. EntomoI. Soc. London, 157-184, 283-323.
(8) Barber, Herbert Spencer. 1937. Some Species of Colaspis from the brunnea Confusion (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash., 38, 1936 (1937): 198-204.
(9) -------. 1943. Notes on Rhabdopterus in the United States (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 38: 111-120.
(10) Bechyne, Jan. 1951. Chrysomeloidea americans nouveaux ou peu connus (Coleoptera). Rev. Chilena Entomol., 1: 75-112.
(11) -------. 1955. Troisieme note sur les Chrysomeloidea neotropi-caux des collections de l'Institute Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique (Col. Phytophaga) Duexieme partie (1). Bull. Inst. Royal des Sci. Nat. Belgique, 31 (19): 1-28.
(12) -------. 1957. Alticides neotropicaux de la collection du Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "Giacomo Doria" di Genova (Coleopt. Chrysomelidae), Annali del Museo Civico de Storia Naturale 'Giacomo Doria', 69: 51-74.
(13) Blackwelder, Richard Eliot. 1946. Checklist of the Coleopterous Insects of Mexico, Central America, the West Indies, and South America. Part 4. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 185: 551-763.
(14) -------. 1957. Checklist of the Coleopterous Insects of Mexico, Central America, the West Indies, and South America. Part 6. U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 185: vii + 1492.
(15) Blake, Doris Holmes. 1927. A Revision of the Beetles of the genus Oedionychis Occurring in America North of Mexico. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 70 (2672) Art. 23: 1-44.
(16) -------. 1931. Revision of the Species of Beetles of the Genus Trirhabda North of Mexico. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 79 Art. 2: 1-36.
(17) -------. 1933. Revision of the Beetles of the Genus Disonycha Occurring in America North of Mexico. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 82 Art. 28: 1-66.
(18) -------. 1942. The Chrysomelid Beetles Luperodes bivittatus (LeConte) and varicornis (LeConte) and Some Allied Species. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 92: 57-74.
(19) -------. 1950. A Revision of the Beetles of the Genus Myochrous. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 101: 1-64.
(20) -------. 1951. New Species of Chrysomelid Beetles of the genera Trirhabda and Disonycha. Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci., 41: 324-328.
(21) -------. 1954. Chrysomelid Beetles of the Oedionychus miniatus Complex. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash., 56: 139-147.
(22) -------. 1955. A Study of LeConte's Species of the Chrysomelid Genus Graphops with Descriptions of Some New Species. Bull. Mus. of Compo ZooI. Harvard, 113 (4): 263-301.
(23) -------. 1958. A Review of Some Galerucine Beetles with Excised Middle Tibiae in the Male. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 108 (3395): 59-101.
(24) -------. 1967. Revision of the Beetles of Genus Glyptoscelis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) (3604): 1-53.
(25) -------. 1970a. A review of the Beetles of the Genus Metachroma Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Smith. Cont. Zool. 57: iii + 111 pp.
(26) -------. 1970b. Notes on Some Chrysomelid Beetles from the United States and Argentina. Proc. EntomoI. Soc. Wash. 72: 320-324.
(27) Blatchley, Willis Stanley. 1910. The Coleoptera or Beetles of Indiana. Bull. Ind. Dept. Geol. Nat. Res., 1: 1-1386. [Also titled: On the Coleoptera Known to Occur in Indiana; and an Illustrated Descriptive Catalogue of the Coleoptera of Beetles (Exclusive of the Rhynchophora) Known to Occur in Indiana with Bibliography and Descriptions of New Species.]
(28) -------. 1914. Notes on the Winter and Early Spring Coleoptera of Florida, with Descriptions of New Species. Canadian Entomol., 46: 140-141.
(29) -------. 1921. Notes on Indiana Halticini with Characterization of a New Genus and Descriptions of New Species. Jour. N. Y. Entomol. Soc., 29: 16-27.
(30) -------. 1923. Notes on the Coleoptera of Southern Florida with Descriptions of New Species. Canadian Entomol., 55: 30-36.
(31) -------. 1924. The Chrysomelidae of Florida. Fla. Entomol. 7: 33-39,49-57; 8: 1-7,17-23,39-46.
(32) Bowditch, Frederick C. 1909. Notes on Pachybrachys and Descriptions of New Species. Canadian Entomol. 41: 312-324.
(33) Brown, Williamson James. 1943. The Canadian Species of Exema and Arthrochlamys. Canadian Entomol., 75: 119-131.
(34) -------. 1945. Food Plants and Distribution of the Species of Calligrapha in Canada with Descriptions of New Species (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). Canadian Entomol. 77: 117-133.
(35) -------. 1952. Some Species of Phytophaga. Canadian Entomol. 84: 335-342.
(36) -------. 1956. The New World Species of Chrysomela L. Canadian Entomol. 88 (Suppl. 3): 1-54.
(37) -------. 1962. The American Species of Chrysolina Mots. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Canadian Entomol., 94: 58-74.
(38) Butte, Janardhan D. 1968a. Revision of the Tribe Chalepini of America North of Mexico I. Genus Xenochalepus Weise (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). The Coleopterists' Bull., 22(2): 45-62.
(39) -------. 1968b. The Revision of the Tribe Chalepini of America North of Mexico II. Genus Chalepus Thunberg (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Journ. of the N. Y. Entomol. Soc., 76(2): 117-133.
(40) -------. 1968c. The Revision of the Tribe Chalepini of America North of Mexico III. Genus Odontota Chevrolat (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). The Coleopterists' Bull. 22 (4): 10 1-124.
(41) Chapuis, Felicien. 1874. Histoire naturelle des insects. Genera des coleopteres... [cont. of Lacordaire], vol. 10, 455 pp. Paris. (Famille des phytophages.)
(42) Chevrolat, Louis Alexandre August. 1837. Noda p. 410. In Dejean, Pierre Francois Marie August, Catalogue des coleopteres de la collection de M. Ie Comte Dejean, livr. 5. 2nd ed. pp. 361-443. Paris.
(43) Chittenden, Frank Hurlburt. 1927. The Species of Phyllotreta North of Mexico, Entomol. Americana, 8 (n.s.) (1): 1-63.
(44) Chujo, Michio. 1940. Fulcidacinae of Formosa (Col. Chrysomelidae). Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 30(202): 265-293.
(45) Clavareau, Henri. 1913. Coleopterorum Catalogus, pars 53, Chrysomelidae: Megascellinae, Megalopodinae, Clytrinae, pp. 1-278. Berlin: W. Junk.
(46) Crowson, R. A. 1953. The Classification of the Families of British Coleoptera Superfamily 17: Chrysomeloidea. Entomol. Mo. 89 (4th ser., vol. 14): 181-198.
(47) Csiki, Ernst. 1940. Chaetocnema blatchleyi p. 401. In Heikertinger, Franz Csiki, Ernst, Coleopterorum catalogus, pars 169. Chrysomelidae: Halticinae, II., vol. 25, pp. 337-635. Berlin : W. Junk.
(48) Dillon, Elizabeth S. and Lawrence S. Dillon. 1961. A Manual of Common Beetles of Eastern North America. viii + 884 pp. Evanston, Ill.: Row, Peterson and Company.
(49) Dozier, H. L. 1921. An Annotated List of Mississippi Chrysomelidae. Ohio Jour. Sci., 22: 117-124.
(50) Essig, Edward Olivier. 1931. A History of Entomology. vii + 1029 pp. New York: The Macmillan Company.
(51) Fall, Henry Clinton. 1915. A Revision of the North American Species of Pachybrachys. Trans. Amer. Entomol. Soc., 41: 291-486.
(52) -------. 1920. On Certain Species of Haltica, Old and New. Psy che 27: 101-111.
(53) -------. 1924. The Blueberry Leaf-Beetle and Some of its Relatives. Part one. Systematic. The New England species of Galerucella. Bull. Maine Agr. Exp. Sta., 319: 79-91.
(54) -------. 1926. A List of the Coleoptera Taken in Alaska and Adjacent Parts of the Yukon Territory in the Summer of 1924. Pan-Pacific Entomol., 2: 191-208.
(55) -------. 1927. New Coleoptera XII. Canadian Entomol., 59:136-141.
(56)-------. 1929. On the genus Phaedon (Coleoptera). Pan-Pacific Entomol., 5: 145-152.
(57) Fattig, P. W. 1948. The Chrysomelidae or Leaf-Beetles of Georgia. Emory Univ. Mus. Bull. 6: 1-47.
(58) Gistle, Johannes Nepomuk Franz Xaver. [Also as Gistl.] 1848. Naturgeschichte des Thierreichs fur hOhere Schulen, 210 pp. Stuttgart.
(59) Gressitt, J. L. And Shinsaku Kimoto. 1961. Pacific Insects Monograph la, The Chrysomelidae of China and Korea Part 1, 299 pp. Honolulu : Entomol. Dept. Bernice P. Bishop Museum.
(60)-------. 1963. Pacific Insects Monograph Ib, The Chrysomelidae of China and Korea Part 2. pp 301-1026. Honolulu: Entomol. Dept. Bernice P. Bishop Mus.
(61) Hicks, Stanton D. 1965. The Northern Limits of Several Species of Coleoptera with Special Reference to Their Occurrence in the Ottawa District, Ontario. Coleopterists' Bull., 19: 37-42.
(62) Hincks, W. D. 1952. The Genera of the Cassidinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Trans. Royal Entomol. Soc. London, 103 (10): 327-358.
(63) Horn, George Henry. 1889. A Synopsis of the Halticini of Boreal America. Trans Amer. Entomol. Soc., 16: 163-320.
(64) -------. 1892. The Eumolpini of Boreal America. Trans. Amer. Entomol. Soc. 19: 195-234.
(65) Karren, Jay B. 1966. A Revision of the Genus Exema of America, North of Mexico (Chrysomelidae, Coleoptera). The Univ. of Kans. Sci. Bull. 46 (18): 647-695.
(66) Kaufmann, D. L. 1967. Notes on the Biology of Three Species of Lema (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) with Larval Descriptions and Key to Described United States Species. Jour. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 40: 361-372.
(67) Kirk, Vernon M. 1969. A List of Beetles of South Carolina Pt. 1--Northern Coastal Plain. Tech. Bull. 1033. S. C. Agr. Exp. Sta. Clemson Univ. 124 pp.
(68) -------. 1970. A List of Beetles of South Carolina Pt. 2.-Mountain, Piedmont, and Southern Coastal Plain. Tech. Bull. 1038. S. C. Agr. Exp. Sta., Clemson Univ.
(69) Krauss, Noel L. H. 1937. A Study of the Genus Glyptoscelis LeConte in America North of Mexico. Univ. Calif. Publ. Entomol., 7 (2): 21-32.
(70)-------. 1964. Some Leaf-Mining Chrysomelids of Lantana (Coleoptera). Coleopterists' Bull., 18: 92-94.
(71) LeConte, John Lawrence. 1880. Short Studies of North American Coleoptera. Trans Amer. Entomol. Soc., 8: 163-218.
(72) -------. 1885. Short Studies of North American Coleoptera (No. 2). Trans. Amer. Entomol. Soc., 12: 1-32.
(73) Leng, Charles William. 1920. Catalogue of the Coleoptera of America North of Mexico, 470. Mount Vernon, N. Y.: John D. Sherman, Jr.
(74) Linell, Martin Larsson. 1898. New Species of Coleoptera of the Family Chrysomelidae with a Short Review of the Tribe Chlamydini. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 20 (1130): 473-485.
(75) Lading, Henry Peder. Catalogue of the Beetles of Alabama. Geological Sur. of Ala. Monogr., 11: 1-172.
(76) Marx, Edward J. F. 1957. A Review of the Subgenus Donacia in the Western Hemisphere (Coleoptera, Donaciidae). Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 112: 197-278.
(77) Mignot, Edward C. 1969. Pachyonychis Clark and Pachyonychus Melsheimer: Nomenclatural Confusion. The Coleopterists' Bull. 23 (4): 99-100.
(78) -------. 1971. Review of Blepharida Chevrolat (Chrysomelidae: Alticinae) in America North of Mexico. The Coleopterists' Bull. 25(1): 9-16.
(79) Moldenke, Andrew R. 1970. A Revision of the Clytrinae of North America North of the Isthmus of Panama (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), 310 pp. Stanford Univ.
(80) Monros, Francisco de Asis. 1955. On Some New Genera of Nearctic Chrysomelinae. Coleopterists' Bull., 9: 53-60.
(81) Osborn, Herbert. 1937 and 1946. Fragments of Entomological History, Part 1 and 2. 394 pp. and ix + 232 pp. Columbus, Ohio: Published by the author.
(82) Park, Orlando. 1951. Cavernicolous Pselaphid Beetles of Alabama, with Observations on Taxonomy of Family. Geol. Sur. of Ala. Mus. Paper, 31: 1-107.
(83) Schaeffer, Charles Frederic August. 1904. New Genera and Species of Coleoptera. Jour. N. Y. Entomol. Soc., 12: 197-236.
(84) -------. 1925a. Revision of the New World Species of the Tribe Donaciini of the Coleopterous family Chrysomelidae. Brooklyn Mus. Sci. Bull. 3(3): 45-165.
(85) -------. 1925b. New Species and Varieties of North American Cassidini (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). Jour. N. Y. Entomol. Soc., 33: 233-237.
(86) -------. 1932. Notes on Some Halticinae with Descriptions of New Species (Col. Chrysomelidae). Bull., Brooklyn Entomol. Soc., 27: 239-245.
(87) -------. 1933. Short Studies in the Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera). Jour. N. Y. Entomol. Soc., 41: 297-325.
(88) -------. 1934. Short Studies in the Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera). Jour. N. Y. Entomol. Soc., 41: 457-480.
(89) Smith, Ray F. And John F. Lawrence. 1967. Clarification of the Status of the Type Specimens of Diabroticites (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae). Univ. of Calif. Pub. in Entomol. 45: 1-174.
(90) Spaeth, Franz. 1952. Floridocassis p. 388. In Hincks, W. D. The Genera of the Cassidinae, Trans. Royal Entomol. Soc. London, 103(10): 327-358.
(91) Stoll, N. R. (ed.). 1961. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature Adopted by the XV International Congress of Zoology, xvii + 176 pp. London: Inter. Trust for Zool. Nomenclature.
(92) Suffrian, E. 1852. Zur Kenntniss der nordamerikanischen Cryptocephalen. Linn. Entomol. 6: 198-318; 7: 1-238.
(93) White, Richard E. 1968. A Review of the Genus Cryptocephalus in America North of Mexico (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera). U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 290: 1-124.
(94) Wilcox, John A. 1954. Leaf Beetles of Ohio (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera). Ohio Biol. Sur. Bull. 43, 8(3): 353-506.
(95) -------. 1957. A Revision of the North American Species of Paria LeC. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). N. Y. State Mus. and Sci. Svc. Bull., 365: 1-45.
(96) -------. 1965. A Synopsis of the North American Galerucinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). N. Y. State Mus. and Sci. Svc. Bull, 400: 1-226.
(97) Woods, William Colcord. 1924. The Blueberry Leaf-Beetle and Some of its Relatives. Part two. Economic and biological. Bull. Maine Agr. Exp. Sta., 319: 92-141.